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ORCHID SPECIES CULTURE Charles and Margaret Baker Psychopsis krameriana (Rchb. f.) H. G. Jones. AKA: Oncidium kramerianum Rchb. f., Oncidium nodosum Morren, Oncidium papilio Lindley var. kramerianum (Rchb. f.) Lindley, Papiliopsis nodosus Morren, Papiliopsis krameriana (Rchb. f.) Morren. ORIGIN/HABITAT: Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, and Ecuador. In Panama, plants are found in the lowlands near Chiriquí Lagoon on the Caribbean side of the isthmus and near Puerto Armuelles on the Pacific side. Plants on trees in wet, tropical forest at 650-1650 ft. (200-500 m) in the western lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador. CLIMATE: Station #80062, Turbo, Colombia, Lat. 8.1N, Long. 76.7W, at 7 ft. (2 m). Temperatures are calculated for an elevation of 1500 ft. (460 m), resulting in probable extremes of 98F (37C) and 41F (5C). N/HEMISPHERE JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC F AVG MAX 80 80 81 82 82 82 82 83 83 82 83 80 F AVG MIN 67 67 68 68 68 67 67 68 68 70 68 67 DIURNAL RANGE 13 13 13 14 14 15 15 15 15 12 15 13 RAIN/INCHES 3.0 2.5 1.3 5.6 11.5 11.1 12.9 11.7 8.8 9.5 13.1 10.7 HUMIDITY/% 83 84 83 85 86 87 85 84 85 82 81 86 BLOOM SEASON * * *** ** *** ** ** ** ** * ** * DAYS CLR @ 7AM 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 RAIN/MM 76 64 33 142 292 282 328 297 224 241 333 272 C AVG MAX 26.7 26.7 27.2 27.8 27.8 28.0 27.8 28.3 28.3 27.8 28.3 26.7 C AVG MIN 19.4 19.5 20.0 20.0 20.0 19.5 19.5 20.0 20.0 21.2 20.0 19.5 DIURNAL RANGE 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.8 7.8 8.5 8.3 8.3 8.3 6.6 8.3 7.2 S/HEMISPHERE JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN Cultural Recommendations: LIGHT: 1800-2500 fc. Low light is suggested initially. Plants may tolerate higher light with high humidity and brisk air movement. TEMPERATURES: Throughout the year, days average 80-83F (27-28C), and nights average 67-70F (19-21C), with a diurnal range of 12-15F (7-8C). HUMIDITY: 80-85% year-round. WATER: Rainfall is moderate to heavy most of the year, with a brief, slightly dry period in late winter. Cultivated plants should be watered often, but their roots must dry quickly after watering, and the medium should never be water logged or soggy. FERTILIZER: 1/4-1/2 recommended strength, applied weekly when plants are actively growing. Many growers use a balanced fertilizer all year, but others use a high-nitrogen fertilizer from spring to midsummer and a higher phosphate formula in late summer and autumn. REST PERIOD: Growing temperatures should be maintained all year. Because of the relatively wide range of distribution, plants probably will adapt to winter minimum temperatures that are 3-5F (2-3C) cooler than indicated. Cultivated plants need less water in winter, especially if light is low, days are short, or temperatures are cool, conditions that can occur in temperate latitudes. Plants should never dry out completely. GROWING MEDIA: Plants may be mounted on tree-fern or cork slabs if humidity is high and plants are watered at least once daily in summer. Several waterings a day may be necessary for mounted plants during very hot, dry weather. Because most growers find it difficult to keep mounted plants moist enough, they are usually grown in shallow pots or baskets using an open, fast draining medium which contains materials that retain some moisture, such as chopped sphagnum or perlite, but dries fairly rapidly after watering. Charcoal is often added to help keep the medium open and prevent it from becoming sour. Undersized pots just large enough to hold the roots are often used. Repotting should be done only when necessary, and then only just as new root growth is starting to enable the plant to become reestablished in the shortest possible time. Our plants grow well for us in wire baskets that are lined with coconut fiber. The basket is then filled with a medium made from a mixture of fine and medium grade tree-fern fiber mixed with about 10% perlite and 10% charcoal. MISCELLANEOUS NOTES: The bloom season shown in the climate table is based on cultivation records. In the habitat, plants are reported to bloom at any time of year. Plant and Flower Information: PLANT SIZE AND TYPE: A 7-11 in. (17-29 cm), sympodial epiphyte. PSEUDOBULB: 1.0-1.6 in. (2.5-4.0 cm) in diameter. The compressed, more or less wrinkled pseudobulbs are enveloped in several papery overlapping bracts which soon weather away. LEAVES: 6-10 in. (15-25 cm) long. A single rigid, leathery, persistent, elliptic-oblong leaf is carried at the top of each pseudobulb. The leaves, which are 1.4-2.6 in. (3.5-6.5 cm) wide, are sharply pointed at the tip and contracted into a very short, folded petiole at the base. They are deep green on the upper surface, sometimes mottled darker green or purple. The strongly keeled lower surface is more or less suffused with purple. INFLORESCENCE: Up to 30 in. (75 cm) long. 1-2 erect to arching scapes are produced from the base of each pseudobulb. They are prominently jointed with conspicuously swollen nodes. Each node is provided with an elongate, pointed, tubular, papery sheath which clasps the lower half of the cylindrical internodes. The apex of the scape has a subconical, sharply pointed, terminal "bud" made up of several very closely overlapping sheaths. FLOWERS: 5-8. Blossoms open singly in succession from the axils of the sheaths at the top of the scape. Each flower lasts only about a week. After the initially produced raceme has been exhausted, the scapes frequently elongate from one of the upper nodes and again produce a series of flowers so that any given scape may remain in flower for a year or more. The large, richly colored, yellow and reddish brown flowers are 3.3-5.0 in. (8.5-12.5 cm) across. The long, narrow, erect dorsal sepal and petals are 2-3 in. (5-8 cm) long but only about 0.2 in. (0.6 cm) wide. They are colored a rich reddish brown, and their upper portions have undulate margins. The shorter but much wider lateral sepals, which are yellow but heavily blotched with reddish brown, are 1.2-2.0 in. (3-5 cm) long, 0.4-1.0 in. (1.0-2.5 cm) wide, and have strongly undulate margins. They are wide-spreading but curve downward along the longitudinal axis so that their tips point straight down. The 3-lobed lip is 1.2-1.8 in. (3.0-4.5 cm) long and about the same width. Most of the lip is richly blotched with reddish brown, but there is a conspicuous bright yellow central patch on the large, spreading mid-lobe. The lateral lobes are rounded and have undulate margins. The central portion of the lip has a deep constriction which may sometimes be prolonged into a short, broad isthmus. The margins of the mid-lobe are strongly undulate. The disc at the base of the lip has a prominent, fleshy, minutely papillose, 5-part, tuberculate crest. The column, which is 0.2-0.3 in. (0.6-0.8 cm) long, has 2 prominent lateral wings above which there are 2 elongated extensions that are thickened at the tip into small blackish glands. HYBRIDIZING NOTES: Chromosome count is 2n = 38. REFERENCES: Braem, G. J. 1993. Studies in the Oncidiinae. Schlechteriana 4(1-2):8-29. Dodson, C., and P. de Dodson. 1980. Orchids of Ecuador, Fasc. 2, plates 100-200. Icones Plantarum Tropicarum. Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, Sarasota, Fla. Dressler, R. 1993. Field Guide to the orchid of Costa Rica and Panama. Cornell University Press. New York. Hamilton, R. 1988. When does it flower? 2nd ed. Robert M. Hamilton, 9211 Beckwith Road, Richmond, B. C., Canada V6X 1V7. Hawkes, A.  1987. Encyclopaedia of cultivated orchids. Faber and Faber, London. Kennedy, G. 1977. The section Glanduligera of the genus Oncidium. Orchid Digest 41(4):139-141. Moir, W. 1975. The butterfly orchids. Orchid Digest 39(1):12-13. Williams, L., and P. Allen. [1946-1949] 1980. Orchids of Panama. Monographs in systematic botany, vol. 4. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Mo. Copyright 2000, Charles O. Baker and Margaret L. Baker Sheet version 94436920 ......................................................................... Please remember that this sheet is for your use only, and though it was provided free of charge, it may not be reproduced or retransmitted in any way without permission. ......................................................................... __________________________________________________________________________ "Orchid Species Culture" Charles & Margaret Baker, Portland, Oregon USA Orchid Culture & Pollination site http://www.orchidculture.com email <email@example.com> __________________________________________________________________________ "Orchid Species Culture Vol. 1 - Pescatorea, Phaius, Phalaenopsis, Pholidota, Phragmipedium, Pleione" 250 pages of culture information. "Orchid Species Culture Vol. 2 - Dendrobium" 850 pages of culture information for more than 1230 Dendrobium species. "The genus Paphiopedilum--Natural History and Cultivation" - Part 1 Dr. Guido Braem, Charles and Margaret Baker ISBN 0-9665337-0-4 Full page color photograph of each species. 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