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Masdevallia angulata Rchb. f.

This culture sheet was provided by Charles and Margaret Baker.
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ORCHID SPECIES CULTURE
Charles and Margaret Baker

Masdevallia angulata Rchb. f. 

AKA: M. burfordiensis O'Brien. 

ORIGIN/HABITAT: Colombia and Ecuador. This species is relatively common
and locally abundant in the cloudforests of Pichincha, Imbabura and Manabí
Provinces of northwestern Ecuador. In addition, plants have recently been
discovered in neighboring southern Colombia above Ricaurte in the
Department of Nariño. Plants are usually found at 4900-6900 ft. (1500-2100
m), but in Manabí Province in Ecuador, they have been reported growing as
low as 1950 ft. (600 m). Plants seem to grow equally well as epiphytes on
mossy trees in cloudforests or as terrestrials in shady humus or on dirt
road embankments. They may also occasionally be found growing on rocks. 

CLIMATE: Station #84045, Quito, Ecuador, Lat. 2.0.1S, Long. 78.5W, at 9222
ft. (2811 m). Temperatures are calculated for an elevation of 6550 ft.
(2000 m), resulting in probable extremes of 95F (35C) and 34F (1C). 

N/HEMISPHERE    JAN  FEB  MAR  APR  MAY  JUN  JUL  AUG  SEP  OCT  NOV  DEC
F AVG MAX        80   81   81   80   80   79   76   76   77   78   78   78
F AVG MIN        53   53   54   55   54   55   55   56   56   56   56   54
DIURNAL RANGE    27   28   27   25   26   24   21   20   21   22   22   24
RAIN/INCHES     0.7  0.8  1.4  5.2  4.3  4.3  5.0  5.3  6.1  6.8  5.4  1.8
HUMIDITY/%       63   60   68   76   77   77   78   80   80   81   78   71
BLOOM SEASON      *    *    *    *         *         *    *    *    *    *
DAYS CLR @  7AM  16   12   10    8    9    8    7    6    5    5    8   11
DAYS CLR @  1PM   6    5    2    1    4    3    4    2    1    2    2    5
RAIN/MM          18   20   36  132  109  109  127  135  155  173  137   46
C AVG MAX      26.7 27.2 27.2 26.7 26.7 26.3 24.5 24.4 25.0 25.6 25.6 25.6
C AVG MIN      11.7 11.6 12.1 12.7 12.1 12.7 12.7 13.2 13.2 13.2 13.2 12.1
DIURNAL RANGE  15.0 15.6 15.1 14.0 14.6 13.6 11.8 11.2 11.8 12.4 12.4 13.5
S/HEMISPHERE    JUL  AUG  SEP  OCT  NOV  DEC  JAN  FEB  MAR  APR  MAY  JUN

Cultural Recommendations: 

LIGHT: 1000-1800 fc. Light should be filtered or diffused, and plants
should never be exposed to direct sun. Strong air movement should be
provided at all times. This species may have a greater tolerance to light
then most of the other members of the genus. 

TEMPERATURES: Throughout the year, days average 76-81F (24-27C), and
nights average 53-56F (12-13C), with a diurnal range of 20-28F (11-16C).
The warmest days and the greatest diurnal range occur in winter when cloud
cover is greatly reduced. These temperatures reflect the coolest
conditions under which this species should be grown. Because of the range
in habitat elevation, plants should adapt to conditions 3-5F (2-3C) warmer
than indicated. 

HUMIDITY: Averages at the weather station are 75-80% most of the year,
dropping to 60-65% for 2-3 months in winter. Humidity is probably somewhat
greater in the cloudforest habitat, however, so conditions for cultivated
plants should be kept as humid as possible. 

WATER: Rainfall is moderate to heavy from spring into late autumn.
Conditions are considerably drier in winter, however. Cultivated plants
should be kept evenly moist during most of the year, but water should be
reduced somewhat in late autumn. 

FERTILIZER: A balanced fertilizer mixed at 1/4-1/2 recommended strength
should be applied every 3-4 weeks if plants are grown in sphagnum moss,
tree-fern fiber, or osmunda. If grown in fir bark, the applications should
be made every 1-2 weeks. Many growers prefer to switch from the normal
balanced formula and make an application of high nitrogen fertilizer early
in the year when plants are actively growing. They may then make an
application of a high phosphate or "bloom booster" formula in late summer
or autumn in order to promote flowering. 

REST PERIOD: Growing conditions should be maintained all year. Rainfall in
the habitat is much less in winter, but additional moisture is available
in the cloudforest habitat from fog, mist and dew. Therefore, water should
be reduced somewhat for cultivated plants, but they should never be
allowed to dry out completely. Fertilizer should be reduced until water is
increased in spring. 

GROWING MEDIA: Plants may be mounted on tree-fern or cork slabs if
humidity is high and plants are watered at least once daily in summer.
Several waterings a day may be necessary for mounted plants during very
hot, dry periods. Because most growers find it difficult to keep mounted
plants moist enough, they are usually grown in pots using an open, fast
draining medium which contains materials that retain some moisture such as
chopped sphagnum or perlite. Charcoal is often added to help keep the
medium open and prevent it from becoming sour. Most growers recommend that
plants be repotted every year. Repotting is usually done in late winter or
early spring, but it may be done anytime between autumn and spring that
does not interfere with flowering. 

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES: The bloom season shown in the climate table is based
on cultivation records. Growers report that this species is easy to grow
and very tolerant of warm growing conditions. 

Plant and Flower Information:

PLANT SIZE AND TYPE: A 4-9 in. (11-24 cm) sympodial epiphyte, lithophyte
or terrestrial. The purplish ramicaul at the base of each growth is
1.2-2.6 in. (3.0-6.5 cm) long. These stout, erect secondary stems are
enclosed by 2-3 loose, tubular sheaths.

LEAVES: 3-7 in. (8-18 cm) long including a 0.8-1.2 in. (2-3 cm) channeled
petiole. The erect leaves have thick, leathery, oblong blades that are
1.0-1.4 in. (2.5-3.5 cm) wide. They are grayish green but are suffused
with purple on the back. 

INFLORESCENCE: 1.0-2.4 in. (2.5-6.0 cm) long. The suberect to horizontal
peduncle emerges from low on the ramicaul. 

FLOWERS: 1 per inflorescence. The large, fleshy, foul-smelling blossoms
last for about 6 weeks, but the plant continues to produce flowers for
about 4 months. The dorsal sepal is yellow to orange and is dotted and
suffused with red or purple. It is 1 in. (2.5 cm) long, 0.7 in. (1.9 cm)
wide, and is connected to the lateral sepals for 0.6 in. (1.4 cm) at the
base to form a broad, cylindrical sepaline tube. The triangular free
portion at the tip contracts into a slender, erect tail that is 0.8-1.1.5
in. (2.0-3.7 cm) long. The inside surface of the lateral sepals is densely
covered with raised dark red-purple spots. The sepals are 1.5-2.1 in.
(3.8-5.3 cm) long and are connected to each other at the base for about
1.2 in. (3 cm) to form a lamina about 1.4 in. (3.5 cm) wide. The
triangular free portions at the tips contract into slender tails that are
0.6-0.9 in. (1.5-2.3 cm) long. The cream-colored petals have 3 purple
veins. The lip is heavily and diffusely dotted with red-purple, and the
white column has purple margins. 

HYBRIDIZING NOTES: N/A. 

REFERENCES: 

Hamilton, R. 1990. Flowering months of orchid species under cultivation.
Orchid Biology Reviews and Perspectives, V. J. Arditti, ed. Timber Press,
Portland, Or. 

Index Kewensis. [1895] 1977. Vol. I-II ( -1885). An enumeration of the
genera and species of flowering plants. Oxford University Press, Amen
House, London E. C. 4. Reprint by Otto Koeltz Science Publishers, D-6240
Koenigstein/West Germany.

Kelleher, J. 1984. Intriguing masdevallias. H. G. H. Publications.
Berkshire, England.

Kränzlin, F. 1925. Monographie der Gattungen Masdevallia Ruiz et Pavon.
Fedde, Repertorium specierum novorum regni vegetabilis, Beihefte 34. 

Luer, C. 1988. Thesaurus Masdevalliarum. Part 11. A monograph of the genus
Masdevallia. Verlag Helga Königer Buchersand, Von-Erckert str. 36, 8000
Munich 82, Germany.

Pridgeon, A. ed. 1992. The illustrated encyclopedia of orchids. Timber
Press, Portland, OR. 

Skittrell, S. 1994. Masdevallias. S. and G. S. c/o Pleurothallid Alliance.

PHOTOS/DRAWINGS: 

Pridgeon, A. ed. 1992. The illustrated encyclopedia of orchids. Timber
Press, Portland, OR. 


Copyright 1997, Charles O. Baker and Margaret L. Baker
Sheet version 12150300

.........................................................................
Please remember that this sheet is for your use only, and though it was
provided free of charge, it may not be reproduced or retransmitted in
any way without permission.
.........................................................................

__________________________________________________________________________
 "Orchid Species Culture" Charles & Margaret Baker, Portland, Oregon USA

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Go Back to Free Culture Sheet Index -- Baker's Home Page

This culture sheet was provided by Charles and Margaret Baker.
Please visit their web site to find out about their Orchid Species Culture books,
Pollination Database, and culture sheet subscription service.