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ORCHID SPECIES CULTURE Charles and Margaret Baker Masdevallia angulata Rchb. f. AKA: M. burfordiensis O'Brien. ORIGIN/HABITAT: Colombia and Ecuador. This species is relatively common and locally abundant in the cloudforests of Pichincha, Imbabura and Manabí Provinces of northwestern Ecuador. In addition, plants have recently been discovered in neighboring southern Colombia above Ricaurte in the Department of Nariño. Plants are usually found at 4900-6900 ft. (1500-2100 m), but in Manabí Province in Ecuador, they have been reported growing as low as 1950 ft. (600 m). Plants seem to grow equally well as epiphytes on mossy trees in cloudforests or as terrestrials in shady humus or on dirt road embankments. They may also occasionally be found growing on rocks. CLIMATE: Station #84045, Quito, Ecuador, Lat. 2.0.1S, Long. 78.5W, at 9222 ft. (2811 m). Temperatures are calculated for an elevation of 6550 ft. (2000 m), resulting in probable extremes of 95F (35C) and 34F (1C). N/HEMISPHERE JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC F AVG MAX 80 81 81 80 80 79 76 76 77 78 78 78 F AVG MIN 53 53 54 55 54 55 55 56 56 56 56 54 DIURNAL RANGE 27 28 27 25 26 24 21 20 21 22 22 24 RAIN/INCHES 0.7 0.8 1.4 5.2 4.3 4.3 5.0 5.3 6.1 6.8 5.4 1.8 HUMIDITY/% 63 60 68 76 77 77 78 80 80 81 78 71 BLOOM SEASON * * * * * * * * * * DAYS CLR @ 7AM 16 12 10 8 9 8 7 6 5 5 8 11 DAYS CLR @ 1PM 6 5 2 1 4 3 4 2 1 2 2 5 RAIN/MM 18 20 36 132 109 109 127 135 155 173 137 46 C AVG MAX 26.7 27.2 27.2 26.7 26.7 26.3 24.5 24.4 25.0 25.6 25.6 25.6 C AVG MIN 11.7 11.6 12.1 12.7 12.1 12.7 12.7 13.2 13.2 13.2 13.2 12.1 DIURNAL RANGE 15.0 15.6 15.1 14.0 14.6 13.6 11.8 11.2 11.8 12.4 12.4 13.5 S/HEMISPHERE JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN Cultural Recommendations: LIGHT: 1000-1800 fc. Light should be filtered or diffused, and plants should never be exposed to direct sun. Strong air movement should be provided at all times. This species may have a greater tolerance to light then most of the other members of the genus. TEMPERATURES: Throughout the year, days average 76-81F (24-27C), and nights average 53-56F (12-13C), with a diurnal range of 20-28F (11-16C). The warmest days and the greatest diurnal range occur in winter when cloud cover is greatly reduced. These temperatures reflect the coolest conditions under which this species should be grown. Because of the range in habitat elevation, plants should adapt to conditions 3-5F (2-3C) warmer than indicated. HUMIDITY: Averages at the weather station are 75-80% most of the year, dropping to 60-65% for 2-3 months in winter. Humidity is probably somewhat greater in the cloudforest habitat, however, so conditions for cultivated plants should be kept as humid as possible. WATER: Rainfall is moderate to heavy from spring into late autumn. Conditions are considerably drier in winter, however. Cultivated plants should be kept evenly moist during most of the year, but water should be reduced somewhat in late autumn. FERTILIZER: A balanced fertilizer mixed at 1/4-1/2 recommended strength should be applied every 3-4 weeks if plants are grown in sphagnum moss, tree-fern fiber, or osmunda. If grown in fir bark, the applications should be made every 1-2 weeks. Many growers prefer to switch from the normal balanced formula and make an application of high nitrogen fertilizer early in the year when plants are actively growing. They may then make an application of a high phosphate or "bloom booster" formula in late summer or autumn in order to promote flowering. REST PERIOD: Growing conditions should be maintained all year. Rainfall in the habitat is much less in winter, but additional moisture is available in the cloudforest habitat from fog, mist and dew. Therefore, water should be reduced somewhat for cultivated plants, but they should never be allowed to dry out completely. Fertilizer should be reduced until water is increased in spring. GROWING MEDIA: Plants may be mounted on tree-fern or cork slabs if humidity is high and plants are watered at least once daily in summer. Several waterings a day may be necessary for mounted plants during very hot, dry periods. Because most growers find it difficult to keep mounted plants moist enough, they are usually grown in pots using an open, fast draining medium which contains materials that retain some moisture such as chopped sphagnum or perlite. Charcoal is often added to help keep the medium open and prevent it from becoming sour. Most growers recommend that plants be repotted every year. Repotting is usually done in late winter or early spring, but it may be done anytime between autumn and spring that does not interfere with flowering. MISCELLANEOUS NOTES: The bloom season shown in the climate table is based on cultivation records. Growers report that this species is easy to grow and very tolerant of warm growing conditions. Plant and Flower Information: PLANT SIZE AND TYPE: A 4-9 in. (11-24 cm) sympodial epiphyte, lithophyte or terrestrial. The purplish ramicaul at the base of each growth is 1.2-2.6 in. (3.0-6.5 cm) long. These stout, erect secondary stems are enclosed by 2-3 loose, tubular sheaths. LEAVES: 3-7 in. (8-18 cm) long including a 0.8-1.2 in. (2-3 cm) channeled petiole. The erect leaves have thick, leathery, oblong blades that are 1.0-1.4 in. (2.5-3.5 cm) wide. They are grayish green but are suffused with purple on the back. INFLORESCENCE: 1.0-2.4 in. (2.5-6.0 cm) long. The suberect to horizontal peduncle emerges from low on the ramicaul. FLOWERS: 1 per inflorescence. The large, fleshy, foul-smelling blossoms last for about 6 weeks, but the plant continues to produce flowers for about 4 months. The dorsal sepal is yellow to orange and is dotted and suffused with red or purple. It is 1 in. (2.5 cm) long, 0.7 in. (1.9 cm) wide, and is connected to the lateral sepals for 0.6 in. (1.4 cm) at the base to form a broad, cylindrical sepaline tube. The triangular free portion at the tip contracts into a slender, erect tail that is 0.8-1.1.5 in. (2.0-3.7 cm) long. The inside surface of the lateral sepals is densely covered with raised dark red-purple spots. The sepals are 1.5-2.1 in. (3.8-5.3 cm) long and are connected to each other at the base for about 1.2 in. (3 cm) to form a lamina about 1.4 in. (3.5 cm) wide. The triangular free portions at the tips contract into slender tails that are 0.6-0.9 in. (1.5-2.3 cm) long. The cream-colored petals have 3 purple veins. The lip is heavily and diffusely dotted with red-purple, and the white column has purple margins. HYBRIDIZING NOTES: N/A. REFERENCES: Hamilton, R. 1990. Flowering months of orchid species under cultivation. Orchid Biology Reviews and Perspectives, V. J. Arditti, ed. Timber Press, Portland, Or. Index Kewensis.  1977. Vol. I-II ( -1885). An enumeration of the genera and species of flowering plants. Oxford University Press, Amen House, London E. C. 4. Reprint by Otto Koeltz Science Publishers, D-6240 Koenigstein/West Germany. Kelleher, J. 1984. Intriguing masdevallias. H. G. H. Publications. Berkshire, England. Kränzlin, F. 1925. Monographie der Gattungen Masdevallia Ruiz et Pavon. Fedde, Repertorium specierum novorum regni vegetabilis, Beihefte 34. Luer, C. 1988. Thesaurus Masdevalliarum. Part 11. A monograph of the genus Masdevallia. Verlag Helga Königer Buchersand, Von-Erckert str. 36, 8000 Munich 82, Germany. Pridgeon, A. ed. 1992. The illustrated encyclopedia of orchids. Timber Press, Portland, OR. Skittrell, S. 1994. Masdevallias. S. and G. S. c/o Pleurothallid Alliance. PHOTOS/DRAWINGS: Pridgeon, A. ed. 1992. The illustrated encyclopedia of orchids. Timber Press, Portland, OR. Copyright 1997, Charles O. Baker and Margaret L. Baker Sheet version 12150300 ......................................................................... Please remember that this sheet is for your use only, and though it was provided free of charge, it may not be reproduced or retransmitted in any way without permission. ......................................................................... __________________________________________________________________________ "Orchid Species Culture" Charles & Margaret Baker, Portland, Oregon USA Orchid Culture & Pollination site http://www.orchidculture.com email <email@example.com> __________________________________________________________________________ "Orchid Species Culture Vol. 1 - Pescatorea, Phaius, Phalaenopsis, Pholidota, Phragmipedium, Pleione" 250 pages of culture information. "Orchid Species Culture Vol. 2 - Dendrobium" 850 pages of culture information for more than 1230 Dendrobium species. 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