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Coelogyne pandurata Lindley

This culture sheet was provided by Charles and Margaret Baker.
Please visit their web site to find out about their Orchid Species Culture books,
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Charles and Margaret Baker

Coelogyne pandurata Lindley

AKA: Sometimes called the 'Black Orchid' because of the dark markings on
the lip.

ORIGIN/HABITAT: Plants are reported in Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo, and the
Philippines on Mindanao, Luzon and Samar Islands. They generally grow on
old trees by rivers, near the coast, or in hot, damp, swampy lowlands.

CLIMATE: Station #96421, Sibu, Sarawak (Borneo), Lat. 2.3N, Long. 111.8E,
at 22 ft. (7 m). Record extreme temperatures are 99F (37C) and 63F (17C). 

F AVG MAX        86   86   87   88   88   90   88   90   87   87   88   87
F AVG MIN        74   74   73   74   74   74   74   73   73   73   73   74
DIURNAL RANGE    12   12   14   14   14   16   14   17   14   14   15   13
RAIN/INCHES    15.2 10.9 11.2  8.1  9.0  7.3  7.0  6.3 10.9  9.2 10.2 12.2
HUMIDITY/%       88   90   90   85   88   81   81   87   90   88   87   89
BLOOM SEASON      *        **   **  ***  ***  ***    *    *    *    *    *
DAYS CLR @ 7AM    0    1    1    1    3    3    2    1    0    1    1    1
DAYS CLR @ 1PM    0    0    1    3    3    2    1    1    0    1    1    1
RAIN/MM         386  277  284  206  229  185  178  160  277  234  259  310
C AVG MAX      30.0 30.0 30.6 31.1 31.1 32.2 31.1 32.2 30.6 30.6 31.1 30.6
C AVG MIN      23.3 23.3 22.8 23.3 23.3 23.3 23.3 22.8 22.8 22.8 22.8 23.3
DIURNAL RANGE   6.7  6.7  7.8  7.8  7.8  8.9  7.8  9.4  7.8  7.8  8.3  7.2

Cultural Recommendations:
The following recommendations are based on averages in the habitat. They
may be used as a guide for newly acquired plants whose requirements are
unknown, or for plants that are not growing or flowering as well as they
should. Reports from growers are included when they indicate success with
conditions in cultivation that are outside the range found in the habitat.

LIGHT: 3500-4000 fc. Plants grow beautifully in lower light, but they
usually do not flower unless conditions are very bright. Growers should
remember, however, that strong air movement is very important for plants
grown under high light.

TEMPERATURE: Summer days average 88-90F (31-32C), and nights average
73-74F (23C), with a diurnal range of 14-17F (8-9C). Except for higher
light, conditions are the same as those required for warm growing

HUMIDITY: 80-90% year-round. Values this high are not essential in
cultivation, but they should be kept above 50-60% with strong air

WATER: Rainfall is very heavy year-round. Cultivated plants should be
allowed to become almost dry before watering, but should never become
completely dry. 

FERTILIZER: A balanced fertilizer mixed at 1/4-1/2 recommended strength
should be applied weekly during periods of active growth. In order to
prevent salt buildup, the medium should be leached every few weeks during
periods of heavier fertilizer applications. This is especially important
in areas with heavily mineralized water. Leaching is performed by watering
the plant as normal to dissolve any accumulated salts, and then an hour
later flushing the media with an amount of water equal to about twice the
volume of the pot.

REST PERIOD: Growing conditions should be maintained year-round. Winter
days average 86-87F (30-31C), and nights average 74F (23C), with a diurnal
range of 12-13F (7C). While rainfall is greatest during winter in the
habitat, water should not be increased for cultivated plants during this
season, especially when plants are grown in temperate latitudes. The
medium should become almost dry before watering, which will probably mean
a decrease in watering frequency for most growers. Light levels must be as
high as possible short of burning the foliage. 

GROWING MEDIA: Baskets or clay or plastic pots with a very open, fast
draining medium is recommended. A mixture of 80% medium-size fir-bark with
10% chopped sphagnum and 10% medium size tree-fern fiber produces good
results when used with clay pots. Repotting is best done when new roots
begin to grow on the most recently matured pseudobulb-the one that
produced the last flowers. This may be somewhat confusing as the plant
blooms from new growths, often before the leaves and pseudobulbs develop.
New root growth may be observed at this time, but it is coming from the
connecting rhizome between the old and new growth, and repotting should be
delayed until flowering is completed, the growth has matured, and root
growth occurs at the base of the new pseudobulb. 

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES: High light is required to initiate blooming. 

Plant and Flower Information:

PLANT SIZE AND TYPE: A moderately sized sympodial epiphyte 12-20 in.
(31-51 cm) tall.

PSEUDOBULBS: Large, very flattened, oval shaped, and often curved, the
pseudobulbs are 3-5 in. (7.5-12.5 cm) tall, and widely spaced on a
creeping rhizome. 

LEAVES: 2 per growth. The evergreen foliage is about 18 in. (46 cm) long.
The elliptic-lanceolate leaves, which arise from the top of the pseudobulb
on stout, 1-2 in. (2.5-5.0 cm) petioles, are rigid, dark green, leathery,
and heavily textured.

INFLORESCENCE: 8-18 in. (20-45 cm) long. The arching inflorescence emerges
from the center of a new growth, usually before the leaves have developed.

FLOWERS: 5-9 per inflorescence, and up to 15 on well grown plants. The
flowers open sequentially, and since each blossom lasts about a week, all
flowers on an inflorescence may not be open at the same time. The very
fragrant blossoms are 3-5 in. (7.5-12.4 cm) across and well spaced along
the inflorescence. Sepals and petals are a clear, pale green to greenish
yellow. The dorsal sepal is held forward over the column, and the petals
and lateral sepals are wide spreading. The blue-green lip is wide and
showy with wavy margins. The lip is accented with deep green in the throat
and irregular dark brownish black markings. 



Bechtel, H., P. Cribb, and E. Launert. 1980. Manual of cultivated orchid
species. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Birk, L. 1972. Difficult Species: Coelogyne pandurata, the "Black Orchid".
Orchid Digest, 36(3): May-June 1972. 

Hamilton, R. M. 1988. When does it flower? 2nd ed. Robert M. Hamilton,
9211 Beckwith Road, Richmond, B.C., Canada.

Hawkes, A. D. 1987. Encyclopaedia of cultivated orchids. Faber and Faber,

Teuscher, H. 1976. Collector's Item Coelogyne and Pleione. American Orchid
Society Bulletin  45(8):Aug. 1976. 

Valmayor, H. 1984. Orchidiana Philippiniana. Vols. 1-2. Eugenio Lopez
Foundation, Manilla, Philippines.

Copyright 1997, Charles O. Baker and Margaret L. Baker
Sheet version 566790

Please remember that this sheet is for your use only, and though it was
provided free of charge, it may not be reproduced or retransmitted in
any way without permission.

 "Orchid Species Culture" Charles & Margaret Baker, Portland, Oregon USA

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Go Back to Free Culture Sheet Index -- Baker's Home Page

This culture sheet was provided by Charles and Margaret Baker.
Please visit their web site to find out about their Orchid Species Culture books,
Pollination Database, and culture sheet subscription service.