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ORCHID SPECIES CULTURE Charles and Margaret Baker Coelogyne pandurata Lindley AKA: Sometimes called the 'Black Orchid' because of the dark markings on the lip. ORIGIN/HABITAT: Plants are reported in Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo, and the Philippines on Mindanao, Luzon and Samar Islands. They generally grow on old trees by rivers, near the coast, or in hot, damp, swampy lowlands. CLIMATE: Station #96421, Sibu, Sarawak (Borneo), Lat. 2.3N, Long. 111.8E, at 22 ft. (7 m). Record extreme temperatures are 99F (37C) and 63F (17C). N/HEMISPHERE JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC F AVG MAX 86 86 87 88 88 90 88 90 87 87 88 87 F AVG MIN 74 74 73 74 74 74 74 73 73 73 73 74 DIURNAL RANGE 12 12 14 14 14 16 14 17 14 14 15 13 RAIN/INCHES 15.2 10.9 11.2 8.1 9.0 7.3 7.0 6.3 10.9 9.2 10.2 12.2 HUMIDITY/% 88 90 90 85 88 81 81 87 90 88 87 89 BLOOM SEASON * ** ** *** *** *** * * * * * DAYS CLR @ 7AM 0 1 1 1 3 3 2 1 0 1 1 1 DAYS CLR @ 1PM 0 0 1 3 3 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 RAIN/MM 386 277 284 206 229 185 178 160 277 234 259 310 C AVG MAX 30.0 30.0 30.6 31.1 31.1 32.2 31.1 32.2 30.6 30.6 31.1 30.6 C AVG MIN 23.3 23.3 22.8 23.3 23.3 23.3 23.3 22.8 22.8 22.8 22.8 23.3 DIURNAL RANGE 6.7 6.7 7.8 7.8 7.8 8.9 7.8 9.4 7.8 7.8 8.3 7.2 S/HEMISPHERE JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN Cultural Recommendations: The following recommendations are based on averages in the habitat. They may be used as a guide for newly acquired plants whose requirements are unknown, or for plants that are not growing or flowering as well as they should. Reports from growers are included when they indicate success with conditions in cultivation that are outside the range found in the habitat. LIGHT: 3500-4000 fc. Plants grow beautifully in lower light, but they usually do not flower unless conditions are very bright. Growers should remember, however, that strong air movement is very important for plants grown under high light. TEMPERATURE: Summer days average 88-90F (31-32C), and nights average 73-74F (23C), with a diurnal range of 14-17F (8-9C). Except for higher light, conditions are the same as those required for warm growing Phalaenopsis. HUMIDITY: 80-90% year-round. Values this high are not essential in cultivation, but they should be kept above 50-60% with strong air movement. WATER: Rainfall is very heavy year-round. Cultivated plants should be allowed to become almost dry before watering, but should never become completely dry. FERTILIZER: A balanced fertilizer mixed at 1/4-1/2 recommended strength should be applied weekly during periods of active growth. In order to prevent salt buildup, the medium should be leached every few weeks during periods of heavier fertilizer applications. This is especially important in areas with heavily mineralized water. Leaching is performed by watering the plant as normal to dissolve any accumulated salts, and then an hour later flushing the media with an amount of water equal to about twice the volume of the pot. REST PERIOD: Growing conditions should be maintained year-round. Winter days average 86-87F (30-31C), and nights average 74F (23C), with a diurnal range of 12-13F (7C). While rainfall is greatest during winter in the habitat, water should not be increased for cultivated plants during this season, especially when plants are grown in temperate latitudes. The medium should become almost dry before watering, which will probably mean a decrease in watering frequency for most growers. Light levels must be as high as possible short of burning the foliage. GROWING MEDIA: Baskets or clay or plastic pots with a very open, fast draining medium is recommended. A mixture of 80% medium-size fir-bark with 10% chopped sphagnum and 10% medium size tree-fern fiber produces good results when used with clay pots. Repotting is best done when new roots begin to grow on the most recently matured pseudobulb-the one that produced the last flowers. This may be somewhat confusing as the plant blooms from new growths, often before the leaves and pseudobulbs develop. New root growth may be observed at this time, but it is coming from the connecting rhizome between the old and new growth, and repotting should be delayed until flowering is completed, the growth has matured, and root growth occurs at the base of the new pseudobulb. MISCELLANEOUS NOTES: High light is required to initiate blooming. Plant and Flower Information: PLANT SIZE AND TYPE: A moderately sized sympodial epiphyte 12-20 in. (31-51 cm) tall. PSEUDOBULBS: Large, very flattened, oval shaped, and often curved, the pseudobulbs are 3-5 in. (7.5-12.5 cm) tall, and widely spaced on a creeping rhizome. LEAVES: 2 per growth. The evergreen foliage is about 18 in. (46 cm) long. The elliptic-lanceolate leaves, which arise from the top of the pseudobulb on stout, 1-2 in. (2.5-5.0 cm) petioles, are rigid, dark green, leathery, and heavily textured. INFLORESCENCE: 8-18 in. (20-45 cm) long. The arching inflorescence emerges from the center of a new growth, usually before the leaves have developed. FLOWERS: 5-9 per inflorescence, and up to 15 on well grown plants. The flowers open sequentially, and since each blossom lasts about a week, all flowers on an inflorescence may not be open at the same time. The very fragrant blossoms are 3-5 in. (7.5-12.4 cm) across and well spaced along the inflorescence. Sepals and petals are a clear, pale green to greenish yellow. The dorsal sepal is held forward over the column, and the petals and lateral sepals are wide spreading. The blue-green lip is wide and showy with wavy margins. The lip is accented with deep green in the throat and irregular dark brownish black markings. HYBRIDIZING NOTES: N/A. REFERENCES: Bechtel, H., P. Cribb, and E. Launert. 1980. Manual of cultivated orchid species. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. Birk, L. 1972. Difficult Species: Coelogyne pandurata, the "Black Orchid". Orchid Digest, 36(3): May-June 1972. Hamilton, R. M. 1988. When does it flower? 2nd ed. Robert M. Hamilton, 9211 Beckwith Road, Richmond, B.C., Canada. Hawkes, A. D. 1987. Encyclopaedia of cultivated orchids. Faber and Faber, London. Teuscher, H. 1976. Collector's Item Coelogyne and Pleione. American Orchid Society Bulletin 45(8):Aug. 1976. Valmayor, H. 1984. Orchidiana Philippiniana. Vols. 1-2. Eugenio Lopez Foundation, Manilla, Philippines. Copyright 1997, Charles O. Baker and Margaret L. Baker Sheet version 566790 ......................................................................... Please remember that this sheet is for your use only, and though it was provided free of charge, it may not be reproduced or retransmitted in any way without permission. ......................................................................... __________________________________________________________________________ "Orchid Species Culture" Charles & Margaret Baker, Portland, Oregon USA Orchid Culture & Pollination site http://www.orchidculture.com email <email@example.com> __________________________________________________________________________ "Orchid Species Culture Vol. 1 - Pescatorea, Phaius, Phalaenopsis, Pholidota, Phragmipedium, Pleione" 250 pages of culture information. 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