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ORCHID SPECIES CULTURE Charles and Margaret Baker Epidendrum parkinsonianum Hooker AKA: Epidendrum aloifolium Bateman, Epidendrum falcatum var. zeledoniae Schlechter, Brassavola pescatorei Hort. ex Stein. ORIGIN/HABITAT: Southern Mexico through Central America to Panama. In Mexico, plants are found in the states of Jalisco, Michoacan, Mexico, Morelos, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Veracruz, and Chiapas. It is a widespread but uncommon species which normally grows epiphytically in pine-oak forests at 4900-7550 ft. (1500-2300 m). CLIMATE: Station #76775, Oaxaca, Mexico, Lat. 17.0N, Long. 96.7W, at 5012 ft. (1528 m). Temperatures are calculated for an elevation of 6000 ft. (1830 m), resulting in probable extremes of 97F (36C) and 31F (-1C). N/HEMISPHERE JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC F AVG MAX 74 78 82 85 84 80 79 78 77 76 76 74 F AVG MIN 44 47 51 54 56 57 56 56 55 53 49 45 DIURNAL RANGE 30 31 31 31 28 23 23 22 22 23 27 29 RAIN/INCHES 0.1 0.2 0.6 1.5 3.2 6.7 3.5 4.1 4.9 2.0 0.4 0.2 HUMIDITY/% 59 58 55 56 62 72 72 71 75 70 64 62 BLOOM SEASON * * * ** * * ** * * * * DAYS CLR @ 6AM 26 24 24 24 9 8 4 8 5 14 20 26 DAYS CLR @ 12PM 25 26 23 22 11 8 3 5 4 13 22 27 RAIN/MM 3 5 15 38 81 170 89 104 124 51 10 5 C AVG MAX 23.3 25.6 27.8 29.4 28.9 26.8 26.2 25.6 25.0 24.4 24.4 23.3 C AVG MIN 6.7 8.2 10.4 12.1 13.2 13.7 13.2 13.2 12.6 11.5 9.3 7.1 DIURNAL RANGE 16.6 17.4 17.4 17.3 15.7 13.1 13.0 12.4 12.4 12.9 15.1 16.2 S/HEMISPHERE JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN Cultural Recommendations: LIGHT: 2000-3000 fc. Throughout the year, plants should receive as much light as possible, short of burning the foliage. The leaves may have a purple tinge when light levels are near the maximum the plant can tolerate. TEMPERATURES: Summer days average 78-80F (26-27C), nights average 56-57F (13-14C), and the diurnal range is 22-23F (12-13C). Spring, before the start of the rainy season, is the warmest time of year. Days average 82-85F (28-29C), nights warm from 51 to 56F (10 to 13C), and the diurnal range is 28-31F (16-17C). HUMIDITY: 70-75% in summer and early autumn, dropping to 55-60% in winter and early spring. WATER: Rainfall is moderate to heavy from late spring to early autumn. Additional moisture is also available from heavy dews which are common most of the year except for 2-3 months in late winter and early spring. Actively growing plants should be kept relatively moist with only slight drying allowed between waterings. Water should be gradually reduced in autumn after new growths have matured. FERTILIZER: 1/4-1/2 recommended strength, applied weekly. A high-nitrogen fertilizer is beneficial from spring to midsummer, but a fertilizer high in phosphates should be used in late summer and autumn. REST PERIOD: Winter days average 74-78F (23-26C), nights are 44-47F (7-8C), and the diurnal range is 29-31F (16-17C). Rainfall is low for 5-6 months from late autumn to early spring, but moisture from frequent dew is available for most of this period. For cultivated plants, water should be reduced and the plants allowed to dry out between waterings, but they should never remain completely dry for long periods. Occasional early morning mistings between waterings may prevent the plants from becoming too dry. For 1-2 months in late winter and early spring, however, water should be limited to only occasional mistings. This corresponds to that time in the habitat when conditions are so dry that even dew is uncommon. Water should be increased when the flowers start to develop. Fertilizer should be reduced or eliminated until water is increased in spring. GROWING MEDIA: Because of the large, pendulous, branching growth habit, plants should be mounted on cork, rough bark, or tree-fern slabs. Plants may also be grown in hanging pots or baskets if a very open, fast draining medium is used. Some growers report that divisions may be made by cutting through the rhizome and mounting the divisions, even those with only a single growth, on a slab with the leaf uppermost. The plant will resume its pendent growth habit as new growths are made. MISCELLANEOUS NOTES: The bloom season shown in the climate table is based on cultivation reports. In nature, plants bloom mostly in spring and summer, but they may bloom more than once each year. Since its discovery, Epidendrum parkinsonianum has often been confused with Epidendrum falcatum, which is a creeping lithophytic plant with brittle, pseudobulbous stems, somewhat smaller flowers with broader segments which have a pinkish hue on the outside, and a lip with a midlobe that is only very slightly longer than the side lobes. Plant and Flower Information: PLANT SIZE AND TYPE: A large, strongly pendulous epiphyte that often forms clumps more than 79 in. (200 cm) long. PSEUDOBULB: Up to 4 in. (10 cm) long. pseudobulbs are clustered, curved-ascending, slender, terete, concealed by translucent, often rough sheaths, and may be difficult to distinguish from the rhizome. LEAVES: 1 or more per pseudobulb. Leaves are up to 18 in. (46 cm) long, often almost cylindrical, very fleshy, flaccid, and are deep green often tinged with purple. INFLORESCENCE: The short peduncles emerge from the top of the pseudobulbs on new growths. FLOWERS: 1-3 per inflorescence. The blossoms are showy, fragrant, long lasting, and may be more than 6 in. (15 cm) across, although they are usually somewhat smaller. The long, narrow, widely spreading sepals and petals may be whitish, tan, pale yellow, or yellowish green. They are often tinged with mauve or purplish bronze on the outside. The large, white lip, which has a more or less distinct yellow or yellowish orange blotch on the disk, is 3-lobed with the narrow, pointed midlobe much longer than the sidelobes. HYBRIDIZING NOTES: Natural hybrids between Epidendrum parkinsonianum and Epidendrum falcatum have been found in one locality in the state of Guerrero. REFERENCES: Ames, O. and D. S. Correll. (1952-1965) 1985. Orchids of Guatemala and Belize. Dover Publications, New York. Hágsater, E., and G. Salazar. 1990. Icones orchidacearum, fasc. I, orchids of Mexico part 1. Asociacion Mexicana de Orquideologia A. C., Mexico. Hamer, F. 1964. Orchids of El Salvador, vol. 1. The Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, 811 South Palm Avenue, Sarasota, FL 33577. Hamer, F. 1983. Orchids of Nicaragua, part 2 Icones Plantarum Tropicarum fascicle 8, plates 701-800. The Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, 811 South Palm Avenue, Sarasota, FL 33577. Hawkes, A.  1987. Encyclopaedia of cultivated orchids. Faber and Faber, London. McVaugh, R. 1989 (1986). Orchidaceae, in Flora Novo-Galiciana vol. 16, a descriptive account of the vascular plants of western Mexico. Ed. W. R. Anderson. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U. S. A. Pridgeon, A. ed. 1992. The illistrated encyclopedia of orchids. Timber Press, Portland, OR. Veitch, J., and Sons. [1887-1894] 1963, 1981. Manual of orchidaceous plants, vols. I-II. James Veitch and Sons, Royal Exotic Nursery, Chelsea, London. Reprint, vol. I, A. Asher and Co., Amsterdam, The Netherlands; reprint, vol. II, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India. Wiard, L. 198?. An introduction to the orchids of Mexico. Comstock Publishing Assoc. Ithaca and London. Williams, L.  1986. The Orchidaceae of Mexico. CEIBA 2(1-4):1-256. Copyright 1997, Charles O. Baker and Margaret L. Baker Sheet version 568369 ......................................................................... Please remember that this sheet is for your use only, and though it was provided free of charge, it may not be reproduced or retransmitted in any way without permission. ......................................................................... __________________________________________________________________________ "Orchid Species Culture" Charles & Margaret Baker, Portland, Oregon USA Orchid Culture & Pollination site http://www.orchidculture.com email <firstname.lastname@example.org> __________________________________________________________________________ "Orchid Species Culture Vol. 1 - Pescatorea, Phaius, Phalaenopsis, Pholidota, Phragmipedium, Pleione" 250 pages of culture information. 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