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ORCHID SPECIES CULTURE Charles and Margaret Baker Barkeria barkeriola Rchb. f. AKA: Epidendrum barkeriola Rchb. f. Halbinger and Kennedy (1980) stated, "The plant is a somewhat diminutive version of Barkeria uniflora and it has been suggested by Schlechter, 1927, and Williams, 1951, that it is a variety of B. uniflora. However, Thien and Dressler, 1970, considered it a clearly distinct species, as we do." ORIGIN/HABITAT: Mexico. Plants are found near the Pacific coast in the States of Nayarit and Jalisco, where they grow from sea level to 3300 ft. (0-1000 m). Plants have been found growing on scrub brush barely above high tide near the village of San Blas. They also grow near the highway that runs between Tepic and Puerto Vallarta where they are found in ravines and along creeks which often carry water only during the rainy season. CLIMATE: Station #76601, Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, Lat. 20.7N, Long. 105.3W, at 15 ft. (5 m). Temperatures are calculated for an elevation of 3300 ft. (1000 m), resulting in probable extremes of 92F (33C) and 43F (6C). N/HEMISPHERE JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC F AVG MAX 75 74 75 76 78 80 82 82 79 80 78 76 F AVG MIN 57 56 55 56 60 65 65 65 65 65 62 59 DIURNAL RANGE 18 18 20 20 18 15 17 17 14 15 16 17 RAIN/INCHES 0.1 0.2 T 0.0 0.1 4.7 5.7 6.4 14.5 5.1 0.9 1.2 HUMIDITY/% 77 77 77 76 75 78 76 78 82 79 79 78 BLOOM SEASON * * * * * * * DAYS CLR N/A RAIN/MM 3 5 1 0 3 119 145 163 368 130 23 30 C AVG MAX 23.9 23.3 23.9 24.4 25.6 26.8 27.8 27.8 26.1 26.7 25.6 24.4 C AVG MIN 13.9 13.4 12.9 13.4 15.6 18.4 18.4 18.4 18.4 18.4 16.8 15.1 DIURNAL RANGE 10.0 9.9 11.0 11.0 10.0 8.4 9.4 9.4 7.7 8.3 8.8 9.3 S/HEMISPHERE JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN Cultural Recommendations: LIGHT: 2500-4000 fc. Rather bright conditions are required, but light should be filtered or diffused, and direct midday sun should be avoided. Strong air movement should be provided at all times. TEMPERATURES: Summer days average 80-82F (27-28C), and nights average 65F (18C), with a diurnal range of 15-17F (8-9C). HUMIDITY: 75-80% year-round. WATER: Rainfall is moderate to heavy in summer and early autumn but decreases rapidly in autumn into a 5-6 month winter dry season. Cultivated plants should be watered heavily and often while actively growing, but their roots must always be able to dry rapidly after watering. Water should be reduced after new growths mature in autumn. FERTILIZER: A balanced fertilizer mixed at 1/4-1/2 recommended strength should be applied weekly during periods of active growth. Many growers recommend using a fertilizer lower in nitrogen and higher in phosphorus during late summer and autumn to promote better blooming the next season and to allow the new growths to harden before winter. REST PERIOD: Winter days average 74-76F (23-24C), and nights average 56-59F (13-15C), with a diurnal range of 17-18F (9-10C). Growers are cautioned that these are the coolest conditions under which this species should be grown. Because of the range in habitat elevation, plants should adapt to conditions 8-10F (4-6C) warmer than indicated in the preceding climate table, but any changes in growing conditions should be made very gradually. Rainfall averages are quite low during the prolonged dry season from late autumn through spring. However, the relatively high humidity and the large diurnal temperature range result in frequent, heavy deposits of dew. Cultivated plants require much less water in winter and spring, but they should not remain completely dry for long periods. Occasional early morning mistings, especially on bright sunny days, should provide the moisture needed to keep plants from becoming too desiccated. Fertilizer should be eliminated until normal watering is resumed after new growth starts in spring. GROWING MEDIA: Plants should be mounted on tree-fern or cork slabs, but humidity must be kept high and the plants watered at least once daily in summer. Several waterings a day may be necessary for mounted plants during very hot, dry periods. If plants cannot be mounted, small shallow pots or baskets should be used with a rapidly draining medium. Although they do not grow well in pots, some Barkeria species will adapt to growing in baskets if a minimum amount of very coarse medium, such as chunks of tree-fern, is used. MISCELLANEOUS NOTES: The bloom season shown in the climate table is based on cultivation records. In nature, the plants bloom in autumn or early winter. Plant and Flower Information: PLANT SIZE AND TYPE: A relatively small, 8 in. (20 cm) sympodial epiphyte. PSEUDOBULB: 8 in. (20 cm) long. As is typical of the genus, the slender pseudobulbs are little more than swollen spindle-shaped stalks. LEAVES: Several. The thin, lanceolate leaves, which are 3 in. (8 cm) long, are carried near the apex and alternate along the pseudobulb. They are reddish on the underside with red edges on the upper surface, but color varies depending on light levels. They are quickly deciduous and normally absent when the plant blooms. INFLORESCENCE: 1.6-11.0 in. (4-27 cm) long. The erect flower stalks emerge at the tops of the most recently matured pseudobulbs. FLOWERS: 2-10 per inflorescence. Pale lilac and white flowers are 1.0-1.4 in. (2.5-3.5 cm) across. Ovate to oblanceolate petals are 0.6-1.0 in. (1.5-2.5) long. Sepals are slightly longer than the petals, not reflexed, lanceolate to oblanceolate, and pointed at the tips. The fiddle-shaped lip is 0.8-1.4 in. (2.0-3.5 cm) long with a rounded or sharply abrupt tip. The only indication of a callus is two, slightly incurved lines at the base. Although similar to B. uniflora, this species is readily distinguished by the fleshy wings on the column, which are widest about the middle, by sepals that are longer than the petals, and by the ovary having a sac-like nectary. HYBRIDIZING NOTES: N/A. REFERENCES: Halbinger, F. 1973. Barkeria barkeriola. Orquidea (Méx.). 3(8):229-233. Halbinger, F. and G. Kennedy. 1980. The genus Barkeria. Orchid Digest. 44(2):56-62. Hamilton, R. 1988. When does it flower? 2nd ed. Robert M. Hamilton, 9211 Beckwith Road, Richmond, B. C., Canada V6X 1V7. McVaugh, R. 1989 . Orchidaceae, in Flora Novo-Galiciana vol. 16, a descriptive account of the vascular plants of western Mexico. Ed. W. R. Anderson. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U. S. A. Wiard, L. 1987. An introduction to the orchids of Mexico. Comstock Publishing Assoc. Ithaca and London. PHOTOS/DRAWINGS: Halbinger, F. 1973. The genus Barkeria. American Orchid Society Bulletin 42(7):620-626. Halbinger, F. and G. Kennedy. 1980. The genus Barkeria. Orchid Digest. 44(2):56-62. Copyright 1997, Charles O. Baker and Margaret L. Baker Sheet version 12282921 ......................................................................... Please remember that this sheet is for your use only, and though it was provided free of charge, it may not be reproduced or retransmitted in any way without permission. ......................................................................... __________________________________________________________________________ "Orchid Species Culture" Charles & Margaret Baker, Portland, Oregon USA Orchid Culture & Pollination site http://www.orchidculture.com email <email@example.com> __________________________________________________________________________ "Orchid Species Culture Vol. 1 - Pescatorea, Phaius, Phalaenopsis, Pholidota, Phragmipedium, Pleione" 250 pages of culture information. 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