This culture sheet was provided by Charles and Margaret Baker.
Please visit their web site to find out about their Orchid Species Culture books,
Pollination Database, and culture sheet subscription service.
An Introduction to Climate Tables and how to use them is
ORCHID SPECIES CULTURE Charles and Margaret Baker Epigeneium lyonii (Ames) Summerhayes AKA: Dendrobium acuminatum Lyon, D. lyonii Ames, Sarcopodium lyonii (Ames) Rolfe, S. acuminatum var. lyonii (Ames) Kranzl., Katherinea acuminata var. lyonii (Ames) A.D. Hawkes ORIGIN/HABITAT: The Philippines. On Luzon Island, the plants grow in the provinces of Bataan, Benquet, Kalinga-Apayao, Quezon, and Rizal at elevations of 1968-3608 ft. (600-1100 m). CLIMATE: Station # 98427, Manila, Luzon, Philippines, Lat. 14.5N, Long. 121.0E, at 74 ft. (23 m). Temperatures are calculated for an elevation of 3000 ft. (914 m), resulting in probable extremes of 91F (33C) and 48F (9C). N/HEMISPHERE JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC F AVG MAX 76 78 81 83 83 81 78 77 78 78 77 76 F AVG MIN 59 59 61 63 65 65 65 65 65 64 62 60 DIURNAL RANGE 17 19 20 20 18 16 13 12 13 14 15 16 RAIN/INCHES 0.9 0.5 0.7 1.3 5.1 10.0 17.0 16.6 14.0 7.6 5.7 2.6 HUMIDITY/% 77 73 70 68 71 81 84 86 87 84 82 79 BLOOM SEASON * * ** * ** * DAYS CLR @ 8AM 6 9 14 14 10 3 2 1 1 6 7 6 DAYS CLR @ 2PM 3 6 10 10 8 2 1 1 0 2 2 3 RAIN/MM 23 13 18 33 130 254 432 422 356 193 145 66 C AVG MAX 24.6 25.7 27.4 28.5 28.5 27.4 25.7 25.2 25.7 25.7 25.2 24.6 C AVG MIN 15.2 15.2 16.3 17.4 18.5 18.5 18.5 18.5 18.5 18.0 16.9 15.7 DIURNAL RANGE 9.4 10.5 11.1 11.1 10.0 8.9 7.2 6.7 7.2 7.7 8.3 8.9 S/HEMISPHERE JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN Cultural Recommendations: The following recommendations are based on averages in the habitat. They may be used as a guide for newly acquired plants whose requirements are unknown, or for plants that are not growing or flowering as well as they should. Reports from growers are included when they indicate success with conditions in cultivation that are outside the range found in the habitat. LIGHT: 1800-2500 fc. TEMPERATURE: Summer days average 77-81F (25-27C), and nights average 65F (19C), with a diurnal range of 12-16F (7-9C). Spring is the warmest season when days average 81-83F (27-29C), nights average 63-65F (17-19C), and the diurnal range of 18-20F (10-11C) is larger than at any time of year. HUMIDITY: 80-85% from summer through autumn, dropping to near 75% in winter, and dropping even further to 68-71% in spring, just before the start of the summer rainy season. WATER: Rainfall is heavy from late spring into autumn. Plants should be kept evenly moist while actively growing. FERTILIZER: A balanced fertilizer, mixed at 1/4-1/2 recommended strength, should be applied weekly during periods of active growth. A fertilizer consisting of lower nitrogen and higher phosphate is recommended in autumn. A higher phosphate level may increase blooming the next season and encourages new growths to harden before winter. Pots should be leached every third or fourth week to prevent salt buildup, especially when fertilizer is being applied most heavily. Plants should first be watered normally to dissolve any accumulated salts. An hour or so later, the medium is flushed with water equal to about twice the volume of the pot. Year-round leaching is critically important in areas with heavily mineralized water. REST PERIOD: Winter days average 76=78F (25-26C), and nights average 59-60F (15-16C), with a diurnal range of 16-19F (9-11C). Rainfall is low for 4 months in winter, but the high humidity and nightly cooling results in frequent and heavy deposits of dew. These conditions may be simulated in cultivation by occasional early morning misting, with a light watering given once every 2-3 weeks, especially when a period of bright sunny weather is expected. Fertilizer should be reduced or eliminated. Both water and fertilizer should be gradually increased in the spring. GROWING MEDIA: Plants may be mounted on slabs of cork or tree-fern fiber if humidity is high, and if water is applied at least daily during the summer. However, plants are usually grown in pots or baskets using an open, fast draining medium. Varying amounts of water-retaining additives such as perlite or chopped sphagnum moss may be combined with a base material of fine to medium sized fir bark or tree-fern fiber. Growers have reported good success using a basket made from 1/4 in. (6 mm) mesh hardware cloth lined with a layer of coconut fiber. Another popular medium consists of chopped tree-fern fiber mixed with about 10% fine charcoal, 10% perlite or sponge rock, and 10% chopped sphagnum or Amazon orchid moss. In typical Pacific Northwest growing conditions, with strong air movement, this combination allows for a heavy hand with watering without the medium becoming soggy or drying completely between waterings. The tree-fern fiber does not break down as rapidly as fir bark, which means repotting is not required as often. If the plant outgrows the basket, it can be hauled out in mass and merely placed in a larger basked without disturbing the roots. This can be an important consideration because these plants do not like to be disturbed, and may sometimes sulk for a year or so after being divided or repotted. When repotting is necessary, it is best done only when a flush of new root growth is just starting to allow the plant to become re-established as rapidly as possible. MISCELLANEOUS NOTES: N/A. Plant and Flower Information: PLANT SIZE AND TYPE: A small to moderately sized sympodial epiphyte that is usually 8-12 in. (22-33 cm) tall. PSEUDOBULBS: 2-3 in. (5-7 cm) long. The ovoid pseudobulbs are 4-angled and minutely pitted when dry. LEAVES: 2 per growth. The bilobed leaves are 7-10 in. (17-25 cm) long, oblong, and leathery. They arise from the top of each pseudobulb. INFLORESCENCE: 20 in. (50 cm) long. Inflorescences, which emerge from the base of the pseudobulb, may be arching or pendant. FLOWERS: As many as 20, but usually 6-8 per inflorescence. The large flowers are well spaced along the inflorescence. They are wide-spreading, star-shaped, and fragrant. The blossoms are usually about 3 in. (7.5 cm) across, but may be as large as 5 in. (12.5 cm). The blossoms are purplish-red with a maroon lip. HYBRIDIZING NOTES: REFERENCES: Bechtel, H., P. Cribb, and E. Launert. 1980. Manual of cultivated orchid species. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. Hawkes, A. D. 1987. Encyclopaedia of cultivated orchids. Faber and Faber, London. Ames, Quismbing, E. A. 1981. The complete writings of Dr. Eduardo A. Quisumbing. Eugenio Lòpez Foundation, Inc. Chronicle Building, Meralco Avenue, Pasig, Metro Manila, Philippines. Copyright 1997, Charles O. Baker and Margaret L. Baker Sheet version 546689 ......................................................................... Please remember that this sheet is for your use only, and though it was provided free of charge, it may not be reproduced or retransmitted in any way without permission. ......................................................................... __________________________________________________________________________ "Orchid Species Culture" Charles & Margaret Baker, Portland, Oregon USA Orchid Culture & Pollination site http://www.orchidculture.com email <email@example.com> __________________________________________________________________________ "Orchid Species Culture Vol. 1 - Pescatorea, Phaius, Phalaenopsis, Pholidota, Phragmipedium, Pleione" 250 pages of culture information. "Orchid Species Culture Vol. 2 - Dendrobium" 850 pages of culture information for more than 1230 Dendrobium species. "The genus Paphiopedilum--Natural History and Cultivation" - Part 1 Dr. Guido Braem, Charles and Margaret Baker ISBN 0-9665337-0-4 Full page color photograph of each species. "The genus Paphiopedilum--Natural History and Cultivation" - Part 2 Dr. Guido Braem, Charles and Margaret Baker ISBN 0-9665337-1-2 Full page color photograph of each species. "Orchid Species Culture Vol. 3 - The Laelia/Cattleya Alliance" coming in a few months. __________________________________________________________________________