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ORCHID SPECIES CULTURE Charles and Margaret Baker Angraecum cultriforme Summerhayes AKA: N/A. ORIGIN/HABITAT: Eastern Africa. Plants are know from as far south as Natal in South Africa, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Tanzania, and Kenya. This orchid is found in moist evergreen forest and in coastal dune forest. It is widespread in the warmer coastal areas throughout its range; but plants also are found on some of the forested mountains in Kenya, southern Tanzania, and Zimbabwe, with collections reported from as high as 7200 ft. (2200 m). Plants frequently grow near rivers, often near the ground on the trunks of trees as well as on branches and small twigs. CLIMATE: Station #68590, Durban, South Africa, Lat. 29.8S, Long. 31.1E, at 20 ft. (6 m). Temperatures are calculated for an elevation of 500 ft. (150 m), resulting in probable extremes of 105F (41C) and 37F (3C). N/HEMISPHERE JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC F AVG MAX 70 70 71 73 75 77 79 79 78 76 73 71 F AVG MIN 50 53 57 60 63 65 67 67 66 62 55 51 DIURNAL RANGE 20 17 14 13 12 12 12 12 12 14 18 20 RAIN/INCHES 1.1 1.5 2.8 4.3 4.8 4.7 4.3 4.8 5.1 3.0 2.0 1.3 HUMIDITY/% 66 72 73 74 75 74 75 76 77 75 69 63 BLOOM SEASON * * * * * * * DAYS CLR @ 8AM 20 15 12 9 8 7 8 11 13 16 18 23 DAYS CLR @ 2PM 22 17 13 9 8 7 11 11 14 15 18 24 RAIN/MM 28 38 71 109 122 119 109 122 130 76 51 33 C AVG MAX 21.1 21.1 21.7 22.8 23.9 25.2 26.2 26.1 25.6 24.4 22.8 21.7 C AVG MIN 10.0 11.9 14.1 15.8 17.5 18.6 19.7 19.7 19.1 16.9 13.0 10.8 DIURNAL RANGE 11.1 9.2 7.6 7.0 6.4 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.5 7.5 9.8 10.9 S/HEMISPHERE JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN Cultural Recommendations: LIGHT: 1800-2500 fc. Initially light should be somewhat filtered or diffused, and plants should not be exposed to direct midday sun. Strong air movement should be provided at all times. TEMPERATURES: Summer days average 77-79F (25-26C), and nights average 65-67F (19-20C), with a diurnal range of 12F (6-7C). HUMIDITY: Near 75% most of the year, dropping to 65-70% for 3-4 months in late autumn and early winter WATER: Rainfall is moderate to heavy from spring into autumn. Amounts then decrease and remain somewhat low during a relatively dry season that lasts 3-4 months from late autumn through winter. Cultivated plants should be watered heavily when actively growing; but their roots must dry rapidly after watering, and conditions around the roots should never become stale or soggy. Water should be gradually reduced in late autumn. FERTILIZER: 1/4-1/2 recommended strength, applied weekly when plants are actively growing. Many growers prefer to use a balanced fertilizer throughout the year; but others use a high-nitrogen fertilizer from spring to midsummer, then switch to one high in phosphates in late summer and autumn. REST PERIOD: Winter days average 70-71F (21-22C), and nights average 50-53F (10-12C), with a diurnal range of 17-20F (9-11C). Rainfall is somewhat lower in winter, but conditions are not extremely dry for long periods. Even though rainfall is low during the dry season, additional moisture is available from heavy dew, so plants usually receive at least some moisture on a fairly regular basis. Cultivated plants need less water in winter, but mounted plants should never go without water for very long and potted plants should never dry out completely. Fertilizer should be reduced or eliminated until heavier watering is resumed in spring. GROWING MEDIA: Plants may be mounted tightly to a tree-fern or cork slab. If mounted, however, humidity must be high and plants need at least daily watering in summer. Several waterings a day may be necessary for mounted plants during extremely hot, dry weather. Plants also may be grown in well-drained pots or baskets, but because of the heavy water requirements, the medium should be open and fast-draining. Roots need dry rapidly after watering, so the medium should never be become stale or soggy. Repotting or dividing should be done only when new root growth is just starting. This allows the plant to become established in the shortest possible time with the least amount of stress. MISCELLANEOUS NOTES: The bloom season shown in the climate table is based on cultivation records. In South Africa, plants bloom from spring into autumn; but in Zimbabwe, they bloom in summer and early autumn. Plant and Flower Information: PLANT SIZE AND TYPE: A 3-11 in. (8-28 cm) monopodial epiphyte. PSEUDOBULB: None. The elongated stem is straight or curved and somewhat 2-edged. It is green when young but turns gray with age. At its base, the stem is often pendulous from the supporting trunk but then curves at right angles with all the leaves twisted to face one side. Numerous fleshy, gray-green roots, which are about 0.1 in. (0.15 cm) in diameter. are produced along the stem. LEAVES: 0.8-2.4 in. (2-6 cm) long by 0.2-0.3 in. (0.5-0.8 cm) wide. Numerous leaves are spaced about 0.3 in. (0.8-0.9 cm) apart in two rows along the stem. They are strap- to sickle-shaped, yellowish green to pinkish green, and sometimes marked with darker dots. Leaves have 2 sharply pointed, very unequal lobes at the apex. INFLORESCENCE: 1.2-1.6 in. (3-4 cm) long. An inflorescence arises from a node opposite a leaf, usually below the newest roots on the stem. The flower spike should not be removed when flowering is completed because as many as 4 bloomings may occur in subsequent seasons. FLOWERS: 1. A single, sweetly scented blossom is produced on each inflorescence, but several inflorescences may each produce flowers at the same time. The small pink or greenish brown to apple-green flowers are 0.6 in. (1.6 cm) across. Blossoms carry the lip uppermost (non-resupinate) and have a slightly inflated spur up to 1 in. (2.5 cm) long. The linear-lanceolate sepals are up to 0.7 in. (1.8 cm) long and taper gradually to long, sharply pointed tips. The dorsal sepal is straight and erect, but the normally straight, obliquely held lateral sepals are sometimes sickle-shaped and curve so that their tips are crossed behind the lip. Petals are narrow, horizontal, linear-lanceolate, up to 0.6 in. 1.4 cm) long, and taper gradually to long, sharp points. They spread widely to each side at the base but curve forward along their length so that their tips often point almost straight forward. The very concave, ovate-lanceolate lip, which is 0.3-0.5 in. (0.8-1.2 cm) long by 0.2 in. (0.4-0.6 cm) wide, has a long, tapering, sharply pointed tip and a spur that may be straight or slightly curved. The column is 0.1 in. (0.2 cm) long. HYBRIDIZING NOTES: N/A. REFERENCES: Ball, J. 1978. Southern African epiphytic orchids. Conservation Press Ltd., Johannesburg. Hamilton, R. 1988. When does it flower? 2nd ed. Robert M. Hamilton, 9211 Beckwith Road, Richmond, B. C., Canada V6X 1V7. la Croix, I. F., E. la Croix, T. la Croix, J. A. Hutson, N. Johnston-Stewart. 1983. Malawi orchids vol. 1 -- epiphytic orchids. National Fauna Preservation Society in Cooperation with the Southern Africa Regional Tourism Council. Stewart, J. and B. Campbell. 1996. Orchids of Kenya. Timber Press, Portland, OR. Stewart, J., with H. Linder, E. Schlepe, and A. Hall. 1982. Wild Orchids of Southern Africa. Macmillan South Africa, Ltd., Johannesburg. PHOTOS/DRAWINGS: Stewart, J. and B. Campbell. 1996. Orchids of Kenya. Timber Press, Portland, OR. Stewart, J., with H. Linder, E. Schlepe, and A. Hall. 1982. Wild Orchids of Southern Africa. Macmillan South Africa, Ltd., Johannesburg. Copyright 1998, Charles O. Baker and Margaret L. Baker Sheet version 24841864 ......................................................................... Please remember that this sheet is for your use only, and though it was provided free of charge, it may not be reproduced or retransmitted in any way without permission. ......................................................................... __________________________________________________________________________ "Orchid Species Culture" Charles & Margaret Baker, Portland, Oregon USA Orchid Culture & Pollination site http://www.orchidculture.com email <firstname.lastname@example.org> __________________________________________________________________________ "Orchid Species Culture Vol. 1 - Pescatorea, Phaius, Phalaenopsis, Pholidota, Phragmipedium, Pleione" 250 pages of culture information. "Orchid Species Culture Vol. 2 - Dendrobium" 850 pages of culture information for more than 1230 Dendrobium species. "The genus Paphiopedilum--Natural History and Cultivation" - Part 1 Dr. Guido Braem, Charles and Margaret Baker ISBN 0-9665337-0-4 Full page color photograph of each species. "The genus Paphiopedilum--Natural History and Cultivation" - Part 2 Dr. Guido Braem, Charles and Margaret Baker ISBN 0-9665337-1-2 Full page color photograph of each species. "Orchid Species Culture Vol. 3 - The Laelia/Cattleya Alliance" coming in a few months. __________________________________________________________________________