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ORCHID SPECIES CULTURE Charles and Margaret Baker Encyclia prismatocarpa (Rchb. f.) Dressler AKA: Epidendrum prismatocarpum Rchb. f. ORIGIN/HABITAT: Costa Rica and Panama. In Panama, plants are found in Chiriquí Province at 3950-4450 ft. (1200-1360 m). CLIMATE: Station #78793, David, Panama, Lat. 8.4N, Long. 82.4W, at 89 ft. (27 m).. Temperatures are calculated for an elevation of 4200 ft. (1280 m), resulting in probable extremes of 86F (30C) and 46F (8C). N/HEMISPHERE JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC F AVG MAX 77 79 80 79 76 74 74 74 74 72 73 74 F AVG MIN 53 54 55 58 57 57 57 57 56 56 56 55 DIURNAL RANGE 24 25 25 21 19 17 17 17 18 16 17 19 RAIN/INCHES 4.0 0.4 1.0 3.1 10.9 13.8 11.3 12.6 12.2 18.9 10.2 4.5 HUMIDITY/% 78 67 68 77 85 88 88 88 88 90 89 86 BLOOM SEASON N/A DAYS CLR @ 7AM 13 13 18 9 2 2 1 1 1 0 1 6 DAYS CLR @ 1PM 5 9 14 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 RAIN/MM 102 10 25 79 277 351 287 320 310 480 259 114 C AVG MAX 25.0 26.1 26.7 26.1 24.4 23.5 23.4 23.3 23.3 22.2 22.8 23.3 C AVG MIN 11.7 12.5 13.0 14.7 14.1 14.1 14.1 14.1 13.6 13.6 13.6 13.0 DIURNAL RANGE 13.3 13.6 13.7 11.4 10.3 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.7 8.6 9.2 10.3 S/HEMISPHERE JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN Cultural Recommendations: LIGHT: 2000-3000 fc. The moderately bright light should be dappled or diffused. Plants should never be exposed to direct sun. Strong air movement should be provided at all times. TEMPERATURES: Summer days average 74F (24C), and nights average 57F (14C), with a diurnal range of 17F (9C). Spring is the warmest season when days average 76-80F (24-27C), and nights average 55-58F (13-15C), with a diurnal range of 19-25F (10-14C). HUMIDITY: 85-90% most of the year, dropping to near 70% in the late winter dry season. WATER: Rainfall is moderate to heavy most of the year with a 2-month dry season in late winter. Cultivated plants should be watered often while they are actively growing, but they need to dry some between waterings. Water should be gradually reduced after new growths mature in late autumn. FERTILIZER: 1/4-1/2 recommended strength, applied weekly. A high-nitrogen fertilizer is beneficial from spring to midsummer, but a high- phosphate fertilizer should be used in late summer and autumn. REST PERIOD: Winter days average 74-79F (23-26C), and nights average 53-55F (12-13C), with a diurnal range of 19-25F (10-14C). Rainfall is low for about 2 months in winter, but high humidity and large diurnal temperature range indicates that additional moisture is available from the heavy dew. Cultivated plants need less in winter, and they should be allowed to dry somewhat between waterings. Plants should never stay dry for long periods, however. Fertilizer should be reduced or eliminated until water is increased in spring. GROWING MEDIA: Plants may be mounted on tree-fern or cork slabs if humidity is high and plants are watered at least once daily in summer. Mounted plants may need several waterings a day during very hot, dry weather. Because most growers find it difficult to keep mounted plants moist enough, however, so the plants are usually grown in pots using an open, fast draining medium which contains materials such as perlite that retains some moisture and charcoal which holds the medium open and keeps it from souring. Plants should be repotted in late winter or early spring just as new root growth is starting. MISCELLANEOUS NOTES: The bloom season in the habitat is summer and autumn. Plant and Flower Information: PLANT SIZE AND TYPE: A medium-sized, 20 in. (50 cm). PSEUDOBULB: 6 in. (15 cm) long and up to 2 in. (5 cm) in diameter. Pseudobulbs are narrowly ovoid, usually yellowish, and often taper gradually above the middle to become very slender at the top. Growths may be clustered or borne a short distance apart on the stout rhizome. LEAVES: 5-13 in. (12-33 cm) long by about 2.5 in. (6.4 cm) wide. Each growth carries 2-3 leathery, often yellow-green leaves at the apex of each pseudobulb. INFLORESCENCE: 6 in. (15 cm) long. An erect, few-to-many flowered raceme emerges through a prominent sheath at the top of the most recently matured pseudobulbs. FLOWERS: Few to many. Flowers may be loosely or densely spaced on each inflorescence. They are about 2 in. (5 cm) across, fragrant, waxy, and long lasting. The color is somewhat variable, but the sepals and petals are usually sulfur-yellow with dark, sepia-brown or dull magenta spots. The lip is may be any color from cream-yellow to rosy-red. The narrowly lanceolate to narrowly oblanceolate sepals are 0.9-1.7 in. (2.2-4.4 cm) long by 0.1-0.2 in. (0.3-0.5 cm) wide. Near the apex, the sepals are keeled on the back side. The sharply pointed, elliptic-linear to lanceolate petals are 0.8-1.1 in. (2.0-2.8 cm) long by 0.1-0.2 in. (0.3-0.5 cm) wide. They are spreading at the base but curve so that the tips project forward on each side of the column. The 3-lobed lip, which is not attached to the column except close to the base, is 0.7-1.0 in. (1.8-2.5 cm) long by 0.3 in.(0.7-0.9 cm) wide. It has a central callus that extends from the base of the lip almost to the apex. HYBRIDIZING NOTES: N/A. REFERENCES: Dressler, R. 1993. Field Guide to the orchids of Costa Rica and Panama. Cornell University Press. New York. Hawkes, A.  1987. Encyclopaedia of cultivated orchids. Faber and Faber, London. Dressler, R. 1993. Field Guide to the orchids of Costa Rica and Panama. Cornell University Press. New York. Williams, L., and P. Allen. [1946-1949] 1980. Orchids of Panama. Monographs in systematic botany, vol. 4. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Mo. Dressler, R. 1993. PHOTOS/DRAWINGS: Dressler, R. 1993. Field Guide to the orchids of Costa Rica and Panama. Cornell University Press. New York. Copyright 1998, Charles O. Baker and Margaret L. Baker Sheet version 42539118 ......................................................................... Please remember that this sheet is for your use only, and though it was provided free of charge, it may not be reproduced or retransmitted in any way without permission. ......................................................................... __________________________________________________________________________ "Orchid Species Culture" Charles & Margaret Baker, Portland, Oregon USA Orchid Culture & Pollination site http://www.orchidculture.com email <firstname.lastname@example.org> __________________________________________________________________________ "Orchid Species Culture Vol. 1 - Pescatorea, Phaius, Phalaenopsis, Pholidota, Phragmipedium, Pleione" 250 pages of culture information. "Orchid Species Culture Vol. 2 - Dendrobium" 850 pages of culture information for more than 1230 Dendrobium species. "The genus Paphiopedilum--Natural History and Cultivation" - Part 1 Dr. Guido Braem, Charles and Margaret Baker ISBN 0-9665337-0-4 Full page color photograph of each species. "The genus Paphiopedilum--Natural History and Cultivation" - Part 2 Dr. Guido Braem, Charles and Margaret Baker ISBN 0-9665337-1-2 Full page color photograph of each species. "Orchid Species Culture Vol. 3 - The Laelia/Cattleya Alliance" coming in a few months. __________________________________________________________________________